The skyline of Hong Kong seen from Victoria Peak on Nov. 9, 2014. (Benjamin Chasteen/Epoch Times)
By Loubna El Amine
Thousands call for free elections in Hong Kong
Tens of thousands rally for free elections in Hong Kong as the city marked the 18th anniversary of its return to China. July 1, 2015. Credit: AP
Washington: In September 2014, students in Hong Kong gathered in a public square to protest some of the Beijing government’s legislative initiatives. One of their slogans was “When dictatorship becomes a reality, revolution is a duty”, which has been attributed to Victor Hugo.
During the Arab Spring, protesters in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen and Syria raised such slogans as: “The people want the overthrow of the regime”, “Bread, freedom, social justice” and “The revolution of dignity and freedom”.
Some academics and public intellectuals who study non-Western societies, worried about imposing Western values, have expressed concern about the use of categories like human rights and liberal democracy.
.They have instead favoured drawing on non-Western societies’ own intellectual traditions and lived experiences. Thus the academic debate about the form of government that China should adopt has focused on drawing from the ideals of Confucianism.
A woman shouts as she blocks the entry of army tanks to Cairo’s Tahrir Square in January 2011. Photo: Getty Images
Yet the slogans raised by the protesters are eminently familiar; they might well have been deployed in any other country, whether Greece, France, Ukraine or indeed the United States. Protesters in Hong Kong did not mention Confucianism at all, prompting one commentator on a prominent Chinese and comparative philosophy blog to ask: “Where are all the Confucians … tonight?”
If Western categories ought to be rejected in favour of non-Western ones, as these academics tell us, then what should we make of the fact that protesters on the ground continue to explicitly demand rights, including women’s rights, equality, elections and the rule of law?
The familiarity of the protesters’ slogans is important and telling.
Pro-democracy demonstrators gather outside the Hong Kong government headquarters to mark the one-year anniversary of the Occupy protests of September 2014. Getty Images
The slogans are familiar not because of superficial resemblances between modes of activism across the world that somehow mask deep intellectual disagreements. Rather, they are familiar because the situation they are responding to is familiar: a state using extensive and arbitrary power.
It would have been odd for protesters in Hong Kong to advocate for the Chinese government’s return to Confucian rituals, or for crowds in Cairo’s streets to demand a return to the Islamic dhimmi system, which left minorities free to pursue private religious practices while being otherwise excluded from political life.
These scenarios are implausible, if not impossible, not because Confucian rituals and the dhimmi system are ineffective in themselves but because they don’t match modern realities. To fight a modern state, to constrain rulers and protect minorities, one needs more appropriate tools.
South Korean elementary school children study Confucian morals and manners at a winter camp north of Seoul. Photo: AP
Democracy, rights and the rule of law should be understood not as Western but as modern: normative tools particularly suited to the realities of political life under the sovereign state, the central institution of modern politics.
Sovereign states centralise politics and impose a monopoly on the use of force in a way that premodern empires could not, and did not.
The only protection against the risk that states will abuse their power is to make the government accountable to its people and protect the inviolability of human life. In other words, demand democracy and rights. Non-Western states now have the same essential features of sovereignty as Western ones. And so their citizens can protect themselves only by fighting for these ideals, and their intellectuals can support these citizens’ efforts only by advocating for these ideals.
Egyptian anti-government protesters pray in front of a tank in Cairo’s Tahrir Square in January 2011. Photo: AP
This is not to deny that many critics around the world denounce human rights and democracy as Western impositions. Their proposals, whether building on Latin American, African, Middle Eastern, Asian or various Western traditions, typically contend that the state should intervene more, rather than less, in society. They argue that the state should provide for social welfare, defend a particular view of the good life or act on religious maxims.
However, to justify themselves to the public, these arguments also inevitably build in guarantees against abuse, legally limiting the use of state power and requiring states to consult with the people, usually through elections. These guarantees dominate the debate between advocates and opponents of these proposals. Even when there is a desire to get away from democracy and human rights, the conversation ends up centring around them and whether to accept them, to what extent and in what form.
Efforts to provide Islamic variants on democracy or Confucian variants on rights should thus be understood not as alternatives to modern ideals, but as variants on them. This is just as it should be. Just as there are differences between the democratic systems of Germany and the United States, so too would a democratic China and a democratic Yemen be different both from each other and from the US and German models. Crucially, these differences are not between East and West, but among different countries with different material realities.
A man holds a placard in Cairo’s Tahrir Square in January 2011. Photo: Getty Images
For a non-Western conception of government to completely avoid generating appeals to democracy and rights, it would need to reject these without simply calling for the extension of the power of the sovereign state. The so-called Islamic State, by rejecting state borders and hearkening back to a premodern caliphate system, is trying to do precisely this. But as the group conquers territory and rules people, it will have to start acting like a state. In fact, it already is.
And once Islamic State does act like a state, we can expect its subjects to start demanding rights, laws and other limits on state action. Their demands might be couched in religious language, but the debate will become more and more recognisable as a debate about the limits of state power, rather than as a debate internal to Islam.
In short, when citizens in non-Western countries clamour for democracy, there is no reason to suspect elitism or Western manipulation or false consciousness. Not everything familiar is a sign of cultural imperialism. This is not to deny that power differentials continue to structure the relationship between the West and the East, but rather to suggest that overcoming the discourse of “us” and “them” will open up more promising avenues for responding to domination.
The Washington Post and The Sydney Morning Herald
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