Posts Tagged ‘Staffan de Mistura’

Quitting Syria too soon would be a ‘blunder’: Mattis

June 9, 2018

US Secretary of Defence Jim Mattis warned Friday it would be a “strategic blunder” to pull out of Syria before UN-led peace efforts had made progress.

A US-led coalition is conducting military operations against the Islamic State group in Syria and Mattis said they must not leave a “vacuum” that President Bashar al-Assad and his Russian and Iranian allies could take advantage of.

© POOL/AFP | US Secretary of Defence Jim Mattis warned that coalition forces leaving Syria could create a “vacuum”

Talks in Geneva led by UN Special Envoy Staffan de Mistura have made little headway, but Mattis said they must be given the chance to succeed.

“In Syria, leaving the field before the special envoy Staffan de Mistura achieves success in advancing the Geneva political process we all signed for under the UN security council resolution would be a strategic blunder, undercutting our diplomats and giving the terrorists the opportunity to recover,” Mattis said at a meeting of coalition defence ministers at NATO headquarters in Brussels.

IS seized parts of a town on the Syria-Iraq border on Friday in the latest in a string of attacks that comes as the continued presence of coalition forces in Syria is coming into question.

US President Donald Trump has vowed he would pull out his troops from Syria but Mattis has pleaded for a more patient approach.

“As the operations ultimately draw to a close, we must avoid leaving a vacuum in Syria that can be exploited by the Assad regime or its supporters,” Mattis said.



Bring Syria to peace talks, EU tells Russia, Iran

April 25, 2018

The European Union urges Russia and Iran to pressure Assad in Syria to engage in talks to end Syria’s bloody civil war

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Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov — File Photo AP

BRUSSELS (AFP) – The EU on Wednesday urged Russia and Iran to pressure Damascus to engage in talks to end Syria’s bloody civil war, as international donors pledged billions of dollars to help civilians caught up in the conflict.

EU diplomatic chief Federica Mogherini said Moscow and Tehran, President Bashar al-Assad’s key supporters, had a duty to help wind down the war, now in its eighth year.

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More than 80 countries, aid groups and United Nations agencies are meeting in Brussels for the second day of a conference on the future of Syria, after the UN’s special envoy warned of a looming humanitarian catastrophe in the rebel-held region of Idlib.

Europe is also keen to use the conference to restart UN-led talks in Geneva which have made little progress in eight rounds. This was in part because Assad’s government has paid little interest in them, and Russia, Iran and Turkey launched a rival process in the Kazakh capital Astana last year.

“We need in particular Russia, Iran to exercise pressure on Damascus so that it accepts to sit at the table under UN auspices,” Mogherini said as she arrived for the gathering, the seventh of its kind.

“We believe that the only sustainable peace for Syria will be linked to a political process under UN auspices.”

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Moscow has repeatedly defended Syria at the UN, most recently over the suspected chemical attack in the town of Douma, blamed by Western powers on Assad’s forces.

Britain’s development minister Penny Mordaunt will urge delegates at the conference to step up the pressure on Moscow.

“In wielding its UN veto 12 times on Syria, (Russia) has given a green flag to Assad to perpetrate human rights atrocities against his own people,” Mordaunt will say, according to her office.

“We’re here to address the urgent humanitarian needs in Syria and the wider region, but all of us here know that the only solution to end the suffering in Syria is a political settlement that brings peace.”

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Iran’s foreign minister Zarif

– ‘Desperately short of resources’ –

The UN says a total of over $9 billion is needed this year for humanitarian work inside Syria and to support refugees in neighbouring countries.

Some of the money has been raised already but Mark Lowcock, the head of UN aid agency UNOCHA told AFP he hoped to see $8 billion pledged on Wednesday, warning that some programmes may need to be cut if funds are not forthcoming.

“We are quite desperately short of resources,” Lowcock said on Tuesday, adding that UNOCHA managed to raise only half of the funds it needed in 2017.

London and Berlin led the pledges on Wednesday, with Britain announcing 450 million pounds ($630 million, 515 million euros) for 2018 and another 300 million pounds for 2019, while Germany said it would donate more than a billion euros.

Some 6.1 million people are now internally displaced in Syria, more than five million have fled the country and 13 million including six million children are in need of aid, according to the UN.

More than 700,000 people have been displaced since the start of this year alone as Assad has stepped up his offensive against rebel forces, intensifying the humanitarian crisis.

UN Syria envoy Staffan de Mistura on Tuesday urged the international community not to allow a fresh humanitarian catastrophe to unfold in the rebel-held northwestern province of Idlib, on the Turkish border, which has seen a massive influx of people fleeing the conflict.

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“We were and are concerned on the humanitarian side by Idlib. Because Idlib is the big new challenge, 2.5 million people,” Mistura said.

“We hope that this would be an occasion for making sure that Idlib does not become the new Aleppo, the new Eastern Ghouta, because the dimensions are completely different.”

A UN Security Council retreat in a secluded farmhouse in Sweden at the weekend, called in a bid to overcome its paralysis on Syria, had lowered the “temperature” but failed to find a political solution, Mistura said.

by Damon WAKE

De Mistura: Dividing Syria is catastrophic to the entire region — He agrees with Putin…

March 20, 2018


Syrian pro-government forces enter the main square of Kfar Batna, southeastern Ghouta, on the outskirts of the capital Damascus, on March 19, 2018. (AFP)
DUBAI: United Nations’ special envoy to Syria, Staffan de Mistura, said Syria was heading toward a catastrophic division and could see the return of Daesh if a peaceful settlement was not found, Saudi state-news channel Al-Ekhbariya reported.
Speaking to an audience at the Institute of Graduate Studies in Geneva, De Mistura said: “The fact is that Syria’s long-term division, which we are witnessing at the moment in different areas of control, will be catastrophic, not only for Syria, but for the region as a whole.”
He explained that without a political solution that does not exclude anyone, Daesh will return to the sphere.
“This is division, this is in fact a country with areas under the influence of other countries … this cannot continue,” said de Mistura, holding a map of Syria with different colors representing the areas of control of the land, adding that “I think that ultimately Syria must remain united.”
He said neither the European Union nor the World Bank would fund the $352 billion reconstruction of Syria unless a political process involving a new UN-sponsored constitution was found.
He added that without this, any military victory would come at an irreplaceable cost.
De Mistura said there was no country that wanted to divide Syria, and that Russia and the United States shared a common interest in defeating Daesh and were in constant communication.


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Air strikes hammer Syria’s Ghouta for fifth day, U.N. mulling ceasefire resolution

February 22, 2018


AMMAN (Reuters) – Warplanes pounded the last rebel enclave near Syria’s capital for a fifth day running on Thursday as the U.N. Security Council considered demanding a 30-day truce  across the country to allow emergency aid deliveries and medical evacuations.

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Civil defence help a man from a shelter in the besieged town of Douma in eastern Ghouta in Damascus, Syria, February 22, 2018. REUTERS/Bassam Khabieh

The U.N. envoy for Syria, Staffan de Mistura, pleaded for a ceasefire to halt one of the fiercest air assaults of the seven-year civil war and prevent a “massacre” in the besieged eastern Ghouta region on the outskirts of Damascus.

At least 403 people have been killed in eastern Ghouta district since Sunday night, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights war monitor, with more than 2,116 wounded from the assault by Syria’s military and its allies.

Planes have struck residential areas in the enclave of 400,000 people and, said medical charities, hit more than a dozen hospitals, making it near impossible to treat the wounded.

Panos Moumtzis, the U.N. humanitarian coordinator for Syria, said households in eastern Ghouta were without food, water or electricity in winter cold and 80 percent of the population of the town of Harasta was living underground.

“There is a need for avoiding a massacre, because we will be judged by history,” Mistura said, urging the 15-member Security Council to act. The Council was meeting on Thursday to discussion the situation at the request of Russia.

President Bashar al-Assad’s main ally Russia, which wields a veto on the Security Council, said it could support a 30-day truce, but not one that included the Islamist militants it says the onslaught on eastern Ghouta is meant to target.


The Council was considering a resolution, drafted by Kuwait and Sweden, that demands “a cessation of hostilities throughout Syria for all military operations except those directed at the Islamic State … Al Qaeda and Al-Nusra Front” for 30 days to allow aid deliveries and medical evacuations.

    Swedish U.N. Ambassador Olof Skoog said he hoped the Council could vote on the resolution on Thursday. But Russian Ambassador Vassily Nebenzia said he would propose amendments to the text.

    A resolution needs nine votes in favour and no vetoes by Russia, China, the United States, France or Britain to pass.

   “The idea with the Security Council resolution is first and foremost stop the bombing and let aid get in … The Russians can step up, will they?” a U.S. official told Reuters.

Residents of Douma, the biggest town in eastern Ghouta, described plumes of black smoke billowing from residential areas after planes dropped bombs from high altitude.

Searches were under way for bodies amid the rubble in the town of Saqba and elsewhere, said rescuers.

Sara Kayyali, Syria researcher for Human Rights Watch, said the situation in eastern Ghouta was deteriorating ”at an exponential rate“ with over 250 civilians dead in the last 48 hours. ”Witnesses that we are speaking to on the ground are saying that it’s ‘raining bombs’,” she told Reuters in Geneva.

Robert Mardini, Middle East regional director for the International Committee of the Red Cross, said the ICRC was poised to offer emergency medical care in the enclave and carry out evacuations of wounded as soon as conditions permitted.

“We need to get clearance and acceptance by all sides to carry out our work. We have a convoy ready to be sent to eastern Ghouta …as soon as there is reduction in the intensity of the fighting,” he told Reuters at a media briefing in Beirut.

In Syria’s north, where Turkey launched an offensive in the past month against a Kurdish militia, the Kurds said pro-government fighters were now deploying to front lines to help repel the Turkish advance, though assistance would be needed from the Syrian army itself.

A man inspects a damaged house in the besieged town of Douma in eastern Ghouta in Damascus, Syria, February 22, 2018. REUTERS/Bassam Khabieh

Government forces also entered a part of Aleppo controlled by the Kurdish YPG militia, a witness and the Observatory said, although the YPG denied this.

The Kurdish YPG – backed by the United States in other parts of Syria – have sought help recently from the Russian-backed Damascus government to resist the Turkish thrust – an example of the strange bedfellows in a multi-sided conflict that has drawn in neighbors and world powers.


International attention is now focused on the humanitarian emergency in eastern Ghouta, where 400,000 people have been under siege for years and where government bombardments escalated sharply on Sunday, causing mass civilian casualties.

De Mistura said he hoped the Security Council would agree to a ceasefire resolution, but acknowledged it would be hard. “I hope it will. But it’s uphill. But I hope it will. It is very urgent,” he told Reuters at the United Nations in Geneva.

Moscow and Damascus say their assault on eastern Ghouta is necessary to defeat rebels who have been firing mortars on the capital – government territory throughout the war.

“Those who support the terrorists are responsible” for the situation in eastern Ghouta, Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov told a conference call with reporters. “Neither Russia, nor Syria nor Iran are in that category of states, as they are waging an absolute war against terrorists in Syria.”


A White House statement said Washington backed the U.N. call for a ceasefire to allow access for aid and medical evacuations.

“The United States also calls upon Russia and its partners to live up to their obligations with respect to de-escalation zones, particularly those in eastern Ghouta and to end further attacks against civilians in Syria.”

Aid workers and residents say Syrian army helicopters have been dropping “barrel bombs” – oil drums packed with explosives and shrapnel – on marketplaces and medical centers.

Residents and insurgents in eastern Ghouta say Russian planes are also involved. Syrians say they can identify Russian aircraft because they fly at higher altitude than Syrian planes.

Damascus and Moscow deny using barrel bombs or hitting civilians. They say rebels hold civilians as human shields.

Video footage obtained by Reuters showed wreckage at the Al Shifa hospital in the town of Hammouriyeh. Staff said it had been hit by air strikes and artillery.

“The clinics department is out of service, the clinical care unit is out, the surgery unit is out, the incubator unit is out, the pediatric section is out, all of the departments of the hospital are completely out of service,” a man identified as a medical worker said.

“There were casualties among our staff, among patients, among the children we had,” he said, adding that doctors had performed an operation in the rubble because it was impossible to evacuate in time.


Opposition-held eastern Ghouta has been under siege by the Syrian army and allied forces since 2013. After government gains since 2015, it is the final rebel bastion near the capital.

Along with Idlib province in the north, part of Aleppo province and a strip in Syria’s southwest, it is one of just a handful of areas left where large numbers of people remain in territory controlled by fighters seeking to overthrow Assad. The president has vowed to regain control of every inch of Syria.

Residents and opposition figures say the Syrian government and its allies are deliberately harming civilians with a “scorched earth policy” to force rebels to surrender.

“They want to break our will and turn Ghouta into another Aleppo but this is their dream,” Yusef Dughmi, a resident in the devastated eastern Ghouta town of Arbin, said overnight.

Reporting by Suleiman Al-Khalidi with; additional reporting by Ellen Francis, Lisa Barrington and Angus McDowall in Beirut, Tuvan Gumrukcu in Ankara, Stephanie Nebehay and Tom Miles in Geneva, Polina Nikolskaya in Moscow and Michelle Nichols at the United Nations; Writing by Peter Graff; editing by Mark Heinrich

Strikes hit Syria’s Ghouta for fifth day as U.N. pleads for ceasefire — Russia accused of aiding the bombardment

February 22, 2018

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Russian bomber over Syria (FILE photo)


AMMAN (Reuters) – Warplanes pounded the last rebel enclave near the Syrian capital for a fifth straight day on Thursday, as the United Nations pleaded for a halt to one of the fiercest air assaults of the seven-year civil war.

More than 300 people have been killed in the rural eastern Ghouta district on the outskirts of Damascus since Sunday night, and many hundreds have been wounded, according to human rights monitors and aid agencies who say Russian and Syrian planes have struck hospitals and other civilian targets.

Residents of Douma, the biggest town in the district, described plumes of black smoke billowing from residential areas after planes dropped bombs from high altitude. Searches were underway for bodies amid the rubble in the town of Saqba and elsewhere, said rescuers.

U.N. Syria envoy Staffan de Mistura said he hoped the Security Council would agree to a resolution calling for a ceasefire in eastern Ghouta, but warned it would not be easy.

President Bashar al-Assad’s veto-wielding ally Russia said on Wednesday a ceasefire would be a “long and complex process to achieve”.

Aid workers and residents say Syrian army helicopters have been dropping “barrel bombs” – oil drums packed with explosives and shrapnel – on marketplaces and medical centers.

Residents and insurgents in eastern Ghouta say high-altitude jets of the kind involved in bombing on Thursday morning are Russian, as Moscow’s warplanes typically fly higher than those of the Syrian air force.

Damascus and Moscow deny targeting civilian areas and accuse rebels of holding civilians as human shields. Western powers have also accused Russia of aiding the bombardment.

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The opposition-held eastern Ghouta region, home to 400,000 people, has been under siege by government forces since 2013. After government gains in recent years it is the final rebel bastion near the capital.

Along with Idlib province and part of Aleppo province in the north and a strip in the southwest, it is one of just a handful of areas left where large numbers of people remain in territory controlled by fighters seeking to overthrow Assad. The president has vowed to regain control of every inch of Syria.

Residents and opposition figures say the Syrian government and its allies are deliberately destroying infrastructure and paralyzing life in what they describe as a “scorched earth policy” to force rebels to surrender.

The Syrian army accuse the rebels of causing deaths by firing mortars on the heavily defended capital.


Russian personnel assemble bombs at the country’s base in Latakia in 2016.


“They want to break our will and turn Ghouta into another Aleppo but this is their dream,” said Yusef Dughmi, a resident in the devastated eastern Ghouta town of Arbin overnight.

Many residents have been sheltering in basements.

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President Putin with Bashar al-Assad

“Why is the regime targeting us we are civilians and the regime and Russia are only targeting civilians?” Khaled Shadid, a resident of Douma told Reuters by telephone as sounds of explosions could be heard.

Basema Abdullah, a widow who was huddled in a basement with her four children in Douma said: “We are in desperate need for your prayers,” before the connection was cut off.

Rescue workers said at least 40 people were killed during Wednesday’s heavy bombing of Kafr Batna, Saqba, Zamalka and Arbin and other towns in the opposition enclave. In the town of Haza, the bombing targeted a field hospital and a bakery, rescuers said.

Syria peace talks to begin in Russia despite opposition boycott

January 29, 2018
The new diplomatic track is meant to examine the key questions on Syria's national agenda [File: Reuters]


SOCHI (RUSSIA) (AFP) – Delegates on Monday arrived in Russia for peace talks aimed at ending the Syrian conflict, but hopes of progress were dimmed after the main opposition group and the Kurds said they would boycott the event.

Regime-backer Moscow has invited 1,600 people to the talks in the Black Sea resort of Sochi as part of a broader push to consolidate its influence in the Middle East and start hammering out a path to a political solution to end the seven-year war.

The aim of the Tuesday congress is to bring Syria closer to creating a post-war constitution, after two days of separate UN-backed talks in Vienna last week closed with the warring sides not even meeting face-to-face to discuss the groundwork for the document.

The Kremlin has downplayed expectations of the event, with presidential spokesman Dmitry Peskov telling journalists Monday that “breakthroughs in the task of political regulation in Syria are hardly possible.”

He added however that under-representation will not “disrupt this congress or undermine its importance,” calling the Sochi talks a “very important” step toward peace.

The Syrian Negotiation Commission (SNC), the country’s main opposition group, said following the talks in Vienna on Thursday and Friday that it would not attend the Sochi congress.

While the government will not be represented as such at the congress, President Bashar al-Assad’s ruling Baath Party and other allied movements are attending.

– Rebel boycott –

The SNC accused Assad and his Russian backers of continuing to rely on military might — and showing no willingness to enter into honest negotiations — as the war in which more than 340,000 people have already died approaches its seventh anniversary.

More than three dozen other Syrian rebel groups, including influential Islamists, had previously said they would not come to Sochi.

And authorities from Syria’s Kurdish autonomous region said Sunday they would not participate because of an ongoing Turkish offensive on the Kurdish enclave of Afrin.

Turkey, which supports Syrian rebels vying for Assad’s ouster, is co-sponsoring the congress along with regime-backer Iran.

Despite the boycotts, the Kremlin’s special envoy on the Syria peace process Alexander Lavrentiev told Russian news agencies that 1,500 out of 1,600 guests invited to the congress would be there.

He added that this included some Kurds and representatives of the Syrian opposition on an “individual basis.”

A list of participants seen by AFP included around 350 regime-tolerated opposition representatives.

– Western suspicions –

Moscow, which has spearheaded several rounds of talks from the start of last year in Kazakhstan’s Astana, initially hoped to convene the congress in Sochi last November but those efforts collapsed following a lack of agreement among co-sponsors.

Western powers have viewed the Russian peace initiative with suspicion, worrying that Moscow is seeking to undermine the UN-backed talks with a view to carving out a settlement that strengthens its ally Assad.

But a spokesman for Secretary-General Antonio Guterres said at the weekend he would send his Syria peace negotiator to Sochi after receiving assurances the conference would not seek to sideline the UN’s talks.

Staffan de Mistura arrived in Sochi Monday, Russian agencies reported.

Russia has long sought UN participation in the Sochi congress to lend credibility to its diplomatic efforts, and is reportedly hoping to establish a committee to create a constitution with UN-backing.

Moscow’s decision to launch a bombing campaign to support Assad in September 2015 — Russia’s first major military operation abroad since Soviet troops withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989 — is widely seen as a turning point in the multi-front conflict that helped shore up the Syrian president.

After two years of military support for the Syrian regime, President Vladimir Putin announced in December last year the partial withdrawal of forces from the country, saying their task had been largely completed.

The Syrian war, which has seen millions displaced, began in 2011 as the regime crushed anti-government protests.


by Theo Merz and Rouba El-Husseini
Al Jazeera

Syria talks: Could Sochi bring peace via new track?


Russian-sponsored diplomatic talks over the future of Syria have begun in the Black Sea resort city of Sochi, but experts predict the summit will merely attempt to enforce a political solution that is in line with the Syrian government’s agenda.

The two-day conference that started on Monday has been given the name “Congress of the Syrian National Dialogue”. It will be the first round of negotiations to take place in Russia, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad‘s main ally.

The United Nations envoy for Syria, Staffan de Mistura will be attending the talks, along with representatives from the Syrian, Iranian and Turkish governments.

Meanwhile, the main opposition bloc – the Syrian Negotiations Commission (SNC), also known as the Higher Negotiation Committee (HNC), announced it will boycott the conference, claiming it is an attempt to undercut the United Nations’ (UN) effort to broker a deal.

But several individuals with the Moscow platform – a dissident faction of the opposition, will be in attendance.

The new track is meant to examine the key questions on Syria’s national agenda.

“First of all, that is the drawing-up of a framework for the future structure of the state, the adoption of a new constitution, and, on the basis of that, the holding of elections under United Nations supervision,” Russian President Vladimir Putin said alongside his Iranian and Turkish counterparts last November.

Like the two main negotiation tracks that are attempting to bring an end to Syria’s seven-year-old conflict – experts say the Sochi talks will likely be in vain.

History of negotiations 

From UN-sponsored talks in Geneva to Russian-Turkish-backed talks in Astana, government representatives and armed opposition groups have traded blame, stormed out of meetings, and disagreed on proposed resolutions.

The main aims of the two main tracks have been to achieve a political transition and a military ceasefire in Syria, but the main sticking point has been the fate of Assad.

While the Syrian government has consistently refused to agree to Assad stepping down, the armed opposition says Assad’s removal is a prerequisite to peace.

Talks for the past two years have utilised a two-year-old UNSC resolution endorsed by De Mistura as the basis for achieving a political transition plan – and so will the Sochi conference.

But experts like Omar Kouch, a Syrian political analyst based in Turkey, believe that the Sochi talks will “completely differ” from the Geneva one.

“In fact, there are efforts to make this [Sochi] track the alternative one, considering that it has stolen two of the so-called “baskets” from what De Mistura proposed during the Geneva talks,” he told Al Jazeera, referencing the constitution and the elections.

“So if the Russians are serious about supporting the Geneva track, then they would have endorsed these things in Geneva by urging the regime to engage in the negotiation process,” Kouch added.

An attempt to hijack a potential political path is under way in Sochi, Kouch believes, who says that a military confrontation on the ground has already been “taken advantage of” by the Syrian government, referencing a recently violated ceasefire agreement in Eastern Ghouta, the last remaining rebel stronghold near Damascus.

“It was an attempt to gain control over more territory… If anything, fighting has intensified over the past few days,” said Kouch.

Despite the ongoing battle, both the Assad government and Russia have ignored repeated calls by UN to allow for the free movement of the ill and injured.

With Moscow and Tehran’s military support, the government has gained more leverage in its negotiating position, further weakening the opposition in their plight to overthrow Assad.

According to Kouch, only 10 opposition representatives, aligned with the Assad government, have agreed to attend the latest talks.

There are various divisions within the opposition, consisting of at least seven factions. De Mistura had previously stressed the importance of the groups uniting in negotiations with the Syrian government.

The main divide within the opposition has been between the SNC and two dissident groups, the Moscow and Cairo platforms. These groups maintain close ties to Russia and are not perceived as a threat by the Assad government, differentiating them from the HNC, which has repeatedly called for the dismantling of the regime as a premise for peace.

‘Dangerous’ new narrative

Still, with a fragmented opposition, Kouch does not foresee a scenario in which the HNC is forced into accepting a solution that may come out of the two-day meeting.

“It [Sochi] is also a dangerous attempt at turning the Syrian question into a matter of internal conflict. It started as a people’s revolution calling for freedom and dignity, now turned into a proxy war… They want to make it seem as if it’s a matter of internal conflict,” said Kouch.

Discussions over elections in the government’s framework do not include a presidential one, which is inherently problematic according to Kouch.

“It [the regime] considers the presidential elections a red line that no one is allowed to cross,” he said, blaming the vagueness of UNSC 2254.

“Every side interprets it [the resolution] the way they see fit.”

Similarly, Aron Lund, a Syria expert and Century Foundation fellow, believes that Russia is trying push Syria toward a diplomatic framework more in tune with military realities – both in Astana and in Sochi.

“Because it makes more sense and because they obviously prefer a peace process structured around the fact that their ally is winning,” Lund told Al Jazeera.

“For Russia, it is a way to drag Turkey and various opposition groups into a process that isn’t unfavorable to their ally, Assad, which the Geneva talks are by design.”

Turkey‘s involvement in the Astana talks helped in rapidly weakening the opposition, said Lund, who expects the Sochi talks to play a similar role.

He also believes that the UN is responsible for not achieving a political solution.

“The Geneva peace talks aren’t really peace talks. They’re transition talks,” said Lund.

“Instead of the UN trying to reconcile warring sides and end the fighting in keeping with whatever balance of power existed in the country, you had a process shaped by the understanding of what had just happened in Tunisia and Egypt – regime removal,” he explained.

As in Tunisia and Egypt, the uprising in Syria started with peaceful anti-government demonstrations in March 2011. It then escalated into a full-blown proxy war that has claimed more than 400,000 lives and driven about half of the country’s pre-war population of 22 million from their homes.

“So by design, the Geneva process can’t end until the UN acknowledges that Syria’s pre-2011 regime is gone,” Lund said.

‘Stamp of approval’

The conference is unlikely to propose a concrete plan, and the lack of opposition representatives had many questioning the summit’s credibility.

“They may form a constitutional committee… And an electoral committee, which will be a large and loose entity of people who are close to the regime,” Kouch predicted.

However, Lund noted that “there’s not going to be a mutually agreed end to the war.”

“The Russians wanted a lot of opposition actors involved to give this a stamp of approval, and Turkey, which has much of the opposition on a leash, doesn’t seem to be playing along,” said Lund. 

“But I’m sure that if this round fails, they’ll just try again.”


Syria opposition to boycott Russian peace talks — Some charging the Russia, Iran and Turkey are seeking to undermine the UN-backed talks — Difficult to find a “beacon of freedom in the east.”

January 27, 2018


At separate conference in Vienna, UN envoy expresses ‘immense frustration’ at lack of progress on a political settlement

Yahya al-Aridi, representative for the Syrian Negotiations Commision (SNC), arrives at the United Nations Office in Vienna on January 26, 2018 (AFP PHOTO / ALEX HALADA)

Yahya al-Aridi, representative for the Syrian Negotiations Commision (SNC), arrives at the United Nations Office in Vienna on January 26, 2018 (AFP PHOTO / ALEX HALADA)

VIENNA, Austria — Syria’s main opposition group on Friday said it would boycott Russian peace talks next week in a major blow to Moscow’s diplomatic efforts towards resolving the brutal seven-year conflict.

“Russia has not succeeded in promoting its conference,” the opposition Syrian Negotiations Commission (SNC) said on its Twitter account.

“The SNC has decided not to participate at Sochi after marathon negotiations with the UN and representatives of countries involved in Syria.”

Dozens of rebel groups had already refused to join the talks in the Black Sea resort next Monday and Tuesday organized by the Syrian regime’s powerful ally Moscow, and the question of whether the main opposition would attend has overshadowed two days of separate UN-backed peace talks in Vienna.

Those talks stretched late into Friday night, with both regime officials and the SNC meeting separately with UN Syria envoy Staffan de Mistura — who did not strike an especially optimistic tone after the gruelling negotiations.

As with eight previous rounds of failed UN-backed talks in Geneva, there was no sign that the warring sides had met face to face at discussions intended to lay the groundwork for a new post-war constitution.

De Mistura, speaking to reporters early Saturday, admitted there had been a disheartening lack of progress up until now in finding a solution for a war that has killed more than 340,000 people.

“I share the immense frustration of millions of Syrians inside and outside the country at the lack of a political settlement to date,” he said.

Russian ambitions

With some 1,600 people invited to Sochi, the UN itself has yet to decide whether it will attend, de Mistura said, adding that this decision is being left to UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres.

De Mistura stressed the legitimacy of the UN-led talks over Russia’s parallel peace push, however, saying firmly that a political transition for Syria “is to be reached in the UN-led Geneva process.”

Bashar al-Jaafari, Syrian chief negotiator and Ambassador of the Permanent Representative Mission of Syria to the United Nations speaks to journalists after the talks on Syria in Vienna on January 26, 2018. (AFP PHOTO / ALEX HALADA)

“I hope that the forthcoming Syrian national dialogue congress in Sochi will contribute to a revived and credible intra-Syrian process under the UN in Geneva,” he added.

Ahead of an SNC press conference on Saturday morning there was little detail about why the opposition had ultimately decided to boycott Sochi, though spokesman Yahya al-Aridi earlier described the talks in Vienna as “tough.”

Western powers have viewed the Russian peace initiative — which is also backed by Turkey and Iran — with suspicion, worrying that Moscow is seeking to undermine the UN-backed talks with an ultimate view to carving out a settlement that strengthens its ally, President Bashar Assad.

‘Black comedy’

Haid Haid, a consulting research fellow at Chatham House think-tank, said Russia’s long-term strategic interests were at play in Sochi.

“They want to present themselves as peace brokers, not only in Syria but in the Middle East in general, a role traditionally carried out by the Americans,” Haid told AFP.

“For the Russians to take this role, they have to do what the Americans were not able to do” — find a solution in Syria, he said.

The Vienna talks were also marked by anger from the regime over a leaked set of political proposals from the United States, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Britain and France that would involve strengthening the role of Syria’s prime minister — at the expense of Assad’s authority.

Top government negotiator Bashar al-Jaafari told reporters it was “tantamount to a black comedy” that these countries were seeking to shape Syria’s political future, as Arabic and English versions of the document circulated online.

“All of them have participated in the bloodshed of the Syrian people,” he said of the five nations, blasting the US as the country “that created ISIS” and adding that Saudi Arabia was anything but


Syrian, Hezbollah and other Iranian-backed Forces Push Deeper Into Border Area With Israel

December 25, 2017

Pro-Assad forces, including Hezbollah, are now turning toward the last rebel-held enclave south west of Damascus in a new expansion of Tehran’s influence

Reuters and Haaretz Dec 25, 2017 10:38 AM
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Hezbollah fighters in Syria, August 23, 2017.

Hezbollah fighters in Syria, August 23, 2017. OMAR SANADIKI/REUTERS

Syrian army forces backed by Iranian-backed militias, including Lebanon’s Hezbollah, pushed deeper into the last rebel-held enclave near a strategic border area with Israel and Lebanon in a new expansion of Tehran’s influence in the war-torn country.

The army and the Shi’ite forces advanced east and south of the Sunni-rebel held bastion of Beit Jin backed by some of the heaviest aerial bombing and heavy artillery shelling since a major assault began over two months ago to seize the area, rebels said.


Haaretz reported last week the Syrian army and supporting militias have been gearing up to expand the area it controls in southern Syria near Israel’s border and are likely to start their attack on rebel forces by the Syrian Mount Hermon. They may later attempt to advance southward, along Israel’s border in the Golan Heights.

The Syrian army said it had encircled the village of Mughr al Meer at the foothills of Mount Hermon as troops moved towards Beit Jin amid fierce clashes.

Image result for syria map, Beit Jin, Mughr al Meer

The enclave is the last rebel bastion left in south west of Damascus that had since last year fallen under government control after months of heavy bombing on civilian areas and years of siege tactics that forced rebels to surrender.

UN Special Envoy for Syria Staffan de Mistura arrives to give a press conference closing a round of Intra Syria peace talks at the European headquarters of the United Nations offices in Geneva on December 14, 2017.
UN Special Envoy for Syria Staffan de Mistura gives a press conference closing a round of Intra Syria peace talks at the European headquarters of the United Nations offices in Geneva, on December 14, AFP PHOTO / Fabrice COFFRINI

“The Iranian backed militias are trying to consolidate their sphere of influence all the way from southwest of Damascus to the Israeli border,” said Suhaib al Ruhail, an official from the Liwa al Furqan rebel group that operates in the area.

Worried by Iran’s expanding influence in Syria after the defeat of Islamic State, Israel has in the last few weeks stepped up its strikes against suspected Iranian targets inside Syria.

Early this month an Israeli strike on a base near Kiswah, south of Damascus was widely believed to be an Iranian military compound, according to a Western intelligence source.

Israel has been lobbying both big powers to deny Iran, Lebanon’s Hezbollah and other Shi’ite militias any permanent bases in Syria, and to keep them away from the Golan, as they gain ground while helping Damascus beat back Sunni-led rebels.

The southwest of Syria is part of a de-escalation zone in southern Syria agreed last July between Russia and Washington, the first such understanding between the two powers.

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U.N. mediator Staffan de Mistura says Syria’s government is blocking peace talks

From December 15, 2017
Deutsche Presse-Agentur

GENEVA — The latest round of U.N.-brokered Syrian peace talks has failed to produce any progress, with U.N. mediator Staffan de Mistura blaming Syrian government delegates for rejecting any dialogue with the opposition.

“I did not see the government really looking to find a way to have a dialogue and negotiate during this round,” he told reporters after the eighth round of talks ended in Geneva on Thursday.

While the opposition presented no preconditions, the government demanded that the other side withdraw a previous statement that had called for the resignation of President Bashar Assad, de Mistura said.

Assad’s envoys did not even want to interact with the opposition indirectly through U.N. intermediaries, the de Mistura added.

De Mistura and his team therefore only held separate meetings with both sides.

While the opposition was ready to talk about a new Syrian constitution and U.N.-led elections, government envoys only wanted to talk about terrorism in their country, and not about political change, according to de Mistura.

“We did not have real negotiations,” he said. “A golden opportunity was missed.”

De Mistura plans a new round of talks in January, but he said he would have to come up with new ideas to move the process forward next time, such as presenting his own outlines for a constitution and elections.

Nasr al-Hariri, the head of the opposition negotiating team, said that the Geneva process was “in great danger” and that the U.N. and the international community were responsible for protecting it.

“The Syrian regime is challenging and undermining the world community by obstructing” ways to find a political solution to the Syrian crisis, al-Hariri told reporters in Geneva.

He stressed that peace negotiations needed two sides and that the Syrian regime delegation had refused to carry out any direct talks, al-Hariri said.

Yehia Aridi, an opposition spokesman, also accused the Syrian government of stalling.

“They simply follow the rule: either we govern or we destroy Syria,” Aridi told dpa from Geneva.

The Syrian government’s chief negotiator, Bashar al-Jaafari, said his side would not engage in any dialogue with the opposition unless they cancelled a recent statement issued in Saudi Arabia, which once again insisted on al-Assad’s departure.

He also accused Saudi Arabia and Western powers that back the opposition of “sabotaging” this round of talks because “they do not want the Geneva process to succeed as a political solution.”

De Mistura had said on Wednesday that Russia should prod Damascus into working to reach a peace accord.

In recent months, government forces, supported by allied Russians, have made major territorial gains against the Western-backed opposition, as well as militant groups including Islamic State.

Earlier on Thursday, government forces foiled a suicide attack targeting an intelligence building near Damascus, security sources and state media reported.

A security patrol vehicle chased a suspicious-looking car on the southern outskirts of the capital city, which the sources said had been targeting the building.

The vehicle exploded killing the would-be bomber without causing any further casualties, they said.

Similar blasts have hit Damascus in the past months. In October, a series of simultaneous suicide attacks killed at least five people in central Damascus.


Hezbollah Vows To Confront Israel

Al Jazeera

The leader of Lebanon’s Hezbollah has said his group and its allies in the region would renew their focus on the Palestinian cause after what he called their victories elsewhere in the region.

Hassan Nasrallah called on Hezbollah’s allies on Monday to put in place a united strategy “in the field” to confront Israel.

His speech came as thousands of Hezbollah supporters demonstrated in Beirut, chanting “Death to America!” and “Death to Israel!” in protest against President Donald Trump’s decision to recognise Jerusalem as Israel’s capital.

Hezbollah, an Iran-backed Lebanese Shia political bloc with a powerful military wing, has been fighting in Syria alongside regional allies to defeat both anti-government rebels and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) group.

Protesters marched through Hezbollah’s south Beirut bastion, carrying banners reading “Jerusalem, Eternal Capital of Palestine” and “Jerusalem is Ours”.

Nasrallah said he hoped the “foolish [US] decision” would mark the “beginning of the end” of Israel.

Days of protest

Al Jazeera’s Zeina Khodr, reporting from Beirut on Monday, said Nasrallah asked Hezbollah supporters to continue protesting against the US move.

“Nasrallah described Trump’s decision as yet another aggression against the Palestinian cause whose aim was to strip Palestinians of their rights,” she said.

Nasrallah had called for the demonstration last week after Trump made his announcement in a televised speech on December 6.

The move has been heavily denounced and has prompted days of protest across the Middle East and elsewhere.


Monday’s rally came a day after a violent protest outside the US embassy in Beirut, where security forces fired tear gas and water cannon at protesters who pelted them with stones.

The demonstrators were barely hundreds of metres from the embassy.

Lebanon is home to over 450,000 Palestinian refugees, who make up nearly 10 percent of the country’s population.

Many are the descendants of those who fled after the creation of Israel in 1948.

Our correspondent said Trump’s decision has been a gift to Hezbollah, which had been drawing flak from its opponents for its intervention in Syria’s conflict.

The battle-hardened Hezbollah fighters played a key role in turning the tide of Syria’s war in favour of President Bashar al-Assad, a key Iran ally.

“From the beginning, since Hezbollah was born three decades ago, Palestine has been central to their cause,” Al Jazeera’s Khodr said.

“Up until a few years ago, Hezbollah was portrayed as a resistance movement.

“But it lost a lot of popularity and legitimacy when it intervened in Syria, with its opponents accusing it of being a sectarian militia that is serving Iran’s interests.


“Now Hezbollah is saying they have won against ISIL, that the war in Syria is winding down and they have to concentrate on their main cause, the Palestinian issue.”

Hezbollah is believed to have a massive arsenal of rockets capable of hitting much of Israel’s territory.

Israel fought a war against Hezbollah in Lebanon in 2006 that killed more than 1,200 Lebanese, mostly civilians, and 120 Israelis, most of them soldiers.

Israel withdrew its forces from southern Lebanon in 2000, ending a 22-year occupation, but the two countries remain technically at war and there have been occasional skirmishes on the border.

'Jerusalem is the make it or break it'

‘Jerusalem is the make it or break it’


Ankara Ensures Impartiality in Syrian Army Operation in Idlib — Towns to be “purged” of Kurdish fighters

December 23, 2017

Fars News

Ankara Ensures Impartiality in Syrian Army Operation in Idlib

TEHRAN (FNA)- Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has assured his Russian Counterpart Vladimir Putin that his army will remain impartial during the Syrian Army’s massive assault to liberate Idlib, a diplomatic source at the French embassy in Oman said on Saturday.

The Arabic-language al-Hadath news quoted the source as disclosing that Erdogan, in his recent meeting with Putin in Ankara, has assured the Russian president that the Turkish forces will remain impartial in the Syrian Army’s liberation operation in Idlib provided that the Kurdish bases in the towns of Afrin, Tal Abyadh, Ra’as  al-Ein and Qamishli in Northern Syria will be purged of Kurdish fighters.

The diplomat told al-Hadath that Erdogan has received worrying reports from the Turkish intelligence service about the Kurds’ dangerous movements in Turkey coordinated by the Kurds in Syria and backed up by the US intelligence.

Reports said earlier today that Syrian Ambassador to the United Nations and Head of the government delegation to intra-Syrian peace talks Bashar al-Jaafari said that the US and Turkish military forces should leave his conflict-plagued country immediately.

Al-Jaafari made the demand during the latest round of Syrian peace negotiations in the Kazakh capital city of Astana

On October 13, Turkish troops travelling in a convoy of 12 armored vehicles entered Northern Syria in a new military operation.

Turkish media sources said the convoy included about 80 soldiers.

Local sources said the troops were headed towards the Western part of Aleppo province.

The development came after Turkish officials said they were sending troops into Syria to enforce a de-escalation zone in Idlib, which is largely controlled by Al-Nusra Front (Tahrir al-Sham Hay’at or the Levant Liberation Board) terrorist alliance.

The de-escalation zone forms part of an agreement reached between Turkey, Iran and Russia.

Syrian congress of national dialogue will be held in Sochi in late Jan.

Meanwhile, a joint statement released after two days of talks in Kazakhstan said delegations from Russia, Iran and Turkey, Syrian government representatives as well as a 20-member opposition team had agreed to hold a “peace congress” in Russia’s Black Sea resort of Sochi as part of efforts to find a political solution to the six-year-old Syrian conflict.

The statement said the congress will be held between January 29 and 30 next year, and “all segments of the Syrian society” will participate in it.

It added “To this end three guarantors (Russia, Turkey and Iran) will hold a special preparation meeting in Sochi before the congress.”

Last week, the eighth round of UN-backed Syria peace talks in Geneva, Switzerland, ended without progress.

UN special envoy for Syria, Staffan De Mistura, described the talks as a missed opportunity.

Previous rounds of Geneva negotiations have failed to achieve results, mainly due to the opposition’s insistence that Syrian President Bashar al-Assad should cede power.

Syrian opposition urges Moscow to push regime over peace settlement — Assad’s future remains an issue

December 22, 2017

Syrians walk along a destroyed street in Raqqa on Wednesday, two months after Syrian Democratic Forces captured the city from Daesh. (AFP)

ASTANA: Syria’s opposition on Thursday said it was more important “than ever before” that Russia push Bashar Assad’s regime toward a political settlement, as new peace talks kicked off in Kazakhstan.

A new round of Syria peace talks backed by powerbrokers Russia, Iran and Turkey began earlier Thursday in the Kazakh capital Astana as major powers seek to revive a hobbled peace process.
Delegations from Russia, Iran and Turkey along with Syrian regime representatives and a 20-strong opposition delegation had all arrived in the Kazakh capital Astana for two days of talks, a Kazakh foreign ministry spokesman said.
The UN’s envoy for Syria, Staffan de Mistura, is expected to attend the second day of talks on Friday, the ministry added.
“We are asking the Russian side, now more than ever before, to put pressure on the regime to push it toward a political settlement,” the Syrian opposition delegation said in a statement after meeting with a UN team.
“The detainees are the priority for the military delegation. We will focus on this cause with the Russian delegation,” the statement added.
The negotiators will also focus on the reinforcement of the cease-fire, especially in the de-escalation zones, as well as the lifting of sieges on all towns and villages and the delivery of assistance to those in need, the statement said.
The regime’s news agency reported that Russia’s delegation had “met separately with the Iranian and Turkish delegations.”
“After the bilateral meetings, there will be a trilateral meeting between the three sponsor states,” it said.
The negotiations should conclude with a plenary session involving all the parties on Friday.
The eighth round of talks comes after Russian leader Vladimir Putin ordered a partial withdrawal of Russian forces during a surprise visit to the war-torn country last week.
Moscow has spearheaded the talks in Astana since the start of the year as it tries to turn its game-changing military intervention in Syria into a negotiated settlement.
The Kremlin also hopes to convene a political congress in the Black Sea resort of Sochi which would bring together regime officials and the opposition to reinvigorate a hobbled peace process.
Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said Thursday there were currently “no dates” for the Sochi congress as of yet.
“The most important thing here is preparedness. No one is trying to artificially accelerate this process,” Peskov told reporters.
Since the start of Syria’s war in 2011, numerous diplomatic attempts to halt the conflict have stumbled, mainly over Assad’s future.
A fragile cease-fire brokered at the end of last year by Moscow and rebel-aligned Ankara has been bolstered somewhat by the negotiations in Astana, which began in January.
Recent rounds of talks in Kazakhstan have focussed on implementing a Russia-led plan for four “de-escalation zones” to stem fighting between the regime and the opposition.
A year on from the devastating and strategically crucial regime victory in Aleppo, Damascus has consolidated control over much of the country, wresting territory from extremist factions not party to the truce, particularly Daesh.
Diplomatic contacts between the major parties in the conflict have intensified in recent months, but there is no sign that Damascus and its armed opponents are any closer to a political settlement.
The Astana talks have run in parallel to negotiations taking place in Geneva with the backing of the UN.
Both the Astana and Geneva negotiations have failed to bear much fruit, and the planned Sochi congress appears to be Moscow’s attempt to force the pace in a bid for a political settlement.
But representatives of the opposition have expressed fears the congress could prove a distraction from the UN negotiations.
The war has left more than 340,000 people dead, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.