MANILA — Southeast Asian countries took a softer stance on South China Sea disputes during a weekend summit, according to a statement issued on Sunday, which went easy on China by avoiding tacit references to its building and arming of its manmade islands.
A chairman’s statement of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) was released about 12 hours after the summit ended, and dropped references to “land reclamation and militarization” included in the text issued at last year’s meeting, and in an earlier, unpublished version seen by Reuters on Saturday.
The outcome follows what two ASEAN diplomats on Saturday said were efforts by Chinese foreign ministry and embassy officials to pressure ASEAN chair the Philippines to keep Beijing’s contentious activities in the strategic waterway off ASEAN’s official agenda.
It also indicates four ASEAN members who the diplomats said had wanted a firmer position had agreed to the statement’s more conciliatory tone.
China is not a member of the 10-member bloc and did not attend the summit but is extremely sensitive about the content of its statements. It has often been accused of trying to influence the drafts to muzzle what it sees as dissent and challenges to its sweeping sovereignty claim.
China’s embassy in Manila could not be reached and its foreign ministry did not respond to request for comment on Saturday.
The statement also noted “the improving cooperation between ASEAN and China”, and did not include references to “tensions” or “escalation of activities” seen in earlier drafts and in last year’s text. It noted, without elaborating, some leaders’ concerns about “recent developments” in the strategic, resource-rich waterway
A Philippine diplomat said it was an open secret that China tries to lean on ASEAN members to protect its interests, but that was not the reason for the unusual delay in issuing the statement.
“There are one or two member countries which lobbied for some changes in some text in the statement, but not related to the South China Sea,” the source said.
Beijing has reacted angrily to individual members expressing their concern about its rapid reclamation of reefs in the Spratlys and its installation of missile systems on them.
Another ASEAN diplomat said the statement was a genuine representation of the atmosphere of the Manila meetings.
“We respected the Philippines’ views and cooperated,” the diplomat said. “It clearly reflected how the issue was discussed.”
The softened statement comes as the current ASEAN chairman, Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte, seeks to bury the hatchet with China after years of wrangling over its maritime assertiveness. After lobbying from Duterte, China agreed to let Filipinos back to the rich fishing ground of the Scarborough Shoal following a four-year blockade.
The no-nonsense leader set the tone for the meeting on Thursday when he said it was pointless discussing China’s maritime activities, because no one dared to pressure Beijing anyway.
As a sign of Duterte’s friendship with Beijing, three Chinese navy vessels on Sunday made a rare visit to the Philippines. Duterte will inspect a guided-missile destroyer in his hometown of Davao on Monday.
Duterte’s foreign policy strategy is a stunning reversal of that of the previous administration, which had close ties with the United States and was seen by China as a nuisance.
That Philippines government in 2013 challenged Beijing by lodging a case with the Permanent Court of Arbitration in 2013.
Two weeks into Duterte’s presidency last year, the Hague court ruled in favor of the Philippines, angering China. But Duterte has made it clear he would not press Beijing to comply anytime soon, and is more interested in doing business than sparring.
The final chairman’s statement issued made no mention to the arbitration case. However, it did include in a section separate to the South China Sea chapter the need to show “full respect for legal and diplomatic processes” in resolving disputes.
Underlining Beijing’s sensitivity about the arbitration award, the two diplomatic sources on Saturday said Chinese embassy officials had lobbied behind the scenes for that sentence to be dropped, and considered it a veiled reference to the ruling.
One diplomat indicated that ongoing moves between China and ASEAN to draft a framework for negotiating a maritime code of conduct may have been a factor in agreeing the softened statement.
All sides want to complete the framework this year, although there is some scepticism that China’s would agree to a set of rules that could impact its geostrategic interests.
(Writing by Martin Petty; Editing by Lincoln Feast)
EDITORIAL – Sea of peace
China became the world’s second largest economy while Southeast Asia prospered and became one of the most dynamic regions during several decades of peace. This highlights the importance not only of maintaining peace but also of enhancing friendly relations in Asia.
The South China Sea is a potential flashpoint for disrupting that peace. This gives urgency to finalizing a code of conduct that will be binding on the parties concerned. For several years now, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations has been hammering out a Code of Conduct on the South China Sea that is acceptable to the regional bloc as well as the non-ASEAN claimants to the disputed waters, China and Taiwan.
A ruling handed down last year by the United Nations-backed Permanent Arbitration Court in The Hague, which invalidated Beijing’s so-called nine-dash-line claim over nearly the entire South China Sea, cannot be ignored in any code of conduct. The court ruling, which also defined the Philippines’ maritime entitlements within its 200-mile exclusive economic zone, was based on the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, which both the country and China have ratified.
Any code of conduct in Southeast Asian waters must abide by international rules if the 10-member bloc wants to become a “global ASEAN” as envisioned in its move toward regional economic integration. The arbitral court ruling, however, inevitably complicates ASEAN negotiations with China on the code of conduct.
The negotiations are expected to continue as the Philippines chairs the grouping during its 50thanniversary this year. Forging a sea code that concerned parties will accept and, more importantly, implement poses a challenge particularly to the holder of the rotating ASEAN chair.
In persuading all the parties to finalize a sea code, the Philippines can invoke the most persuasive argument, which is to ensure peace. The region has prospered and benefited immeasurably from the dividends of peace. Approving a code of conduct in contested waters can only enhance that peace and guarantee even greater prosperity for all.
United Nations-backed Permanent Arbitration Court in The Hague said China’s nine dash line was not recognized in international law